Monday, August 11, 2014


Five major sources of resistance to change (Kast & Rosenzweig (1974)

1. Sunk cost

2. Miscommunication

3. Group norms

4. Threats to the balance of power

5. Great diversity among the subgroups within the organization

Kaufman (1971)

Listed some additional barries to change:

·         benefits that result from stability, at least to certain groups, and thus resistance to change arises.



·         Havelock (1973) indicated that teachers in particular tend to resist those innovations that increase their workload. There seems also to be resist those innovations that threaten traditional roles (Shephard, 1967) and require the acquisition of traditional skills or knowledge.

·         Lin and Zaltman (1973) have pointed out that less complex innovations are accepted more readily than those of greater complexity. ....complex innovations are more likely to require more money and cause personal discomfort among those affected.......

Innovation must have a perceived advantage over alternatives if it is to be accepted.

It is also helpful and perhaps mandatory if the innovation is to be compatible with existing programs and can be demonstrated to suplement or complement them in some manner.

1 comment:

Anonymous said...

why there is a relative advantages, compatible, less complexity, trialability and observability but the rate of adoption still low? :-(