- teachers pay close attention to the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that students bring into the classroom
- teachers are attentive to each student's individual progress and develop appropriate tasks which further facilitate deeper understanding of the material.
present students with challenging material that they can manage; that is,
the problems are demanding enough to maintain engagement, but not so difficult as to lead to discouragement."
- learning is tied in with understanding (i.e., it supports the transfer of knowledge to different situations).
between tasks and projects that "encourage hands-on doing and those that encourage doing with understanding"
- teachers conduct ongoing formative assessments
- teachers pay attention to the context (i.e.community) in which the learning takes place